Sonochemical activity is dependent on flow patterns within the reactor and either no affect or a decrease in activity was observed at 376, 995, and 1179 kHz from overhead stirring. The interaction of fluid flow with ultrasound was further investigated in this study with circulatory flow. The effect of fluid circulation on radical production was investigated at two circulation speeds, with and without surface stabilisation. The sonochemical activity was determined by the yield of hydrogen peroxide, measured by iodide dosimetry. The sonochemically active region was pictured using sonochemiluminescence imaging and the flow fields were visualised with dyed flow videos. At 376 and 995 kHz, an increase in sonochemical activity was observed with the slower flow rate; however at 1179 kHz, the sonochemical activity was either not affected or decreased. The observed changes in sonochemical activity were attributed to an increase in asymmetry of the bubble collapse brought about by fluid motion. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bussemaker, M. J., & Zhang, D. (2014). A phenomenological investigation into the opposing effects of fluid flow on sonochemical activity at different frequency and power settings. 2. Fluid circulation at high frequencies. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 21(2), 485-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.09.011