In this study, 68 specimens of the genus Lolium were scored for 27 characters, comprising 12 vegetative, 12 inflorescence and 3 seed characters. The aim of the study was to investigate the species relationships within the genus in Iran. The data were analysed using principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Both analyses separated L. perenne, L. persicum, L. temulentum, L. multiflorum from each other. According to previous authors, L. rigidum and L. loliaceum show little difference from each other and are not separable to a species level. In this study these two species separated clearly from the other species, but were most closely related to L. perenne following cluster analysis and to L. multiflorum following PCA. L. persicum was found to be the most distinct species within the genus Lolium in Iran.