A Novel Preclinical In Vitro 3D Model of Oral Carcinogenesis for Biomarker Discovery and Drug Testing: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Ravi T. Chitturi Suryaprakash, Kate Shearston, Camile S. Farah, Simon A. Fox, Muhammad M. Iqbal, Ulrich Kadolsky, Xiao Zhong, Alka Saxena, Omar Kujan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study aimed to develop an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) cell culture model of oral carcinogenesis for the rapid, scalable testing of chemotherapeutic agents. Spheroids of normal (HOK) and dysplastic (DOK) human oral keratinocytes were cultured and treated with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). A 3D invasion assay using Matrigel was performed to validate the model. RNA was extracted and subjected to transcriptomic analysis to validate the model and assess carcinogen-induced changes. The VEGF inhibitors pazopanib and lenvatinib were tested in the model and were validated by a 3D invasion assay, which demonstrated that changes induced by the carcinogen in spheroids were consistent with a malignant phenotype. Further validation was obtained by bioinformatic analyses, which showed the enrichment of pathways associated with hallmarks of cancer and VEGF signalling. Overexpression of common genes associated with tobacco-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), such as MMP1, MMP3, MMP9, YAP1, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1, was also observed. Pazopanib and lenvatinib inhibited the invasion of transformed spheroids. In summary, we successfully established a 3D spheroid model of oral carcinogenesis for biomarker discovery and drug testing. This model is a validated preclinical model for OSCC development and would be suitable for testing a range of chemotherapeutic agents.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4096
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2023

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