Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been widely used to remove phosphorus (P) from wastewater. In this study we report a novel modification to the EBPR approach, namely enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBPR-r) that facilitates biological recovery of P from wastewater using a post denitrification configuration. The novel approach consists of two major steps. In the first step, a biofilm of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) is exposed to a wastewater stream in the absence of active aeration, during which P is taken up by the biofilm using nitrate and residual dissolved oxygen as electron acceptors. Thus, P and nitrogen (N) removal from wastewater is achieved. During the second step, the P enriched biofilm is exposed to a smaller recovery stream supplemented with an external carbon source to facilitate P release under anaerobic conditions. This allows P to be recovered as a concentrated liquid. The EBPR-r process was able to generate a P recovery stream four time more concentrated (28mg-P/L) than the wastewater stream (7mg-P/L), while removing nitrate (denitrification) from the wastewater stream. Repeated exposure of the biofilm (10P-uptake and release cycles) to a recovery stream yielded up to 100mg-P/L. Overall, EBPR-r is the first post denitrification strategy that can also facilitate P recovery during secondary wastewater treatment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.