A new classification of Myrtaceae tribe Chamelaucieae DC., derived from a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on nr ETS and cp trnK and atpB-rbcL spacer sequences, is presented. Eleven subtribes are recognised, eight of which are new. The currently accepted circumscriptions of subtribes Calytricinae Benth. and 'Euchamelaucieae Benth.' (nom. inval.) are retained, with the latter being formally published here as Chamelauciinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson. Subtribe Thryptomeninae Benth. is reduced in size by the creation of the new subtribes Alutinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson and Micromyrtinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson. Subtribe Baeckeinae Schauer is reduced to a single genus, with the excluded genera distributed in the new subtribes Astarteinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson, Hysterobaeckeinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson, Ochrospermatinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson, Rinziinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson and Stenostegiinae Rye & Peter G.Wilson. The history of recognition of the genera and subtribes of Chamelaucieae is outlined and supporting morphological evidence for the new classification discussed.