The rolling bearing is a crucial component of the rotating machine, and it is particularly vital to ensure its normal operation. In addition, the selection of different category features will add uncertainty and bias to the classification results. In order to decrease the interference of these factors to fault diagnosis, a new method that automatically learns the features of the data combined with Markov transition field (MTF) and convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed in this paper, namely MTF-CNN. The MTF contributes to convert the original time series into corresponding figures, and the CNN is used to extract the deep feature information in the figure to complete the fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by two public data sets. The experimental results show that MTF-CNN can classify different types of faults, and the highest accuracy rate can reach 100%. Likewise, the classification accuracy of this method is higher than some existing methods.