The high occurrence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events is still a major public health issue. Although a major determinant of ASCVD event reduction is the absolute change of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), considerable residual risk remains and new therapeutic options are required, in particular, to address triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. In the era of Genome Wide Association Studies and Mendelian Randomization analyses aimed at increasing the understanding of the pathophysiology of ASCVD, RNA-based therapies may offer more effective treatment options. The advantage of oligonucleotide-based treatments is that drug candidates are targeted at highly specific regions of RNA that code for proteins that in turn regulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. For LDL-C lowering, the use of inclisiran - a silencing RNA that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) synthesis - has the advantage that a single s.c. injection lowers LDL-C for up to 6 months. In familial hypercholesterolemia, the use of the antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) mipomersen, targeting apolipoprotein (apoB) to reduce LDL-C, has been a valuable therapeutic approach, despite unquestionable safety concerns. The availability of specific ASOs lowering Lp(a) levels will allow rigorous testing of the Lp(a) hypothesis; by dramatically reducing plasma triglyceride levels, Volanesorsen (APOC3) and angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3)-LRx will further clarify the causality of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in ASCVD. The rapid progress to date heralds a new dawn in therapeutic lipidology, but outcome, safety and cost-effectiveness studies are required to establish the role of these new agents in clinical practice.