A combination of the ‘semi-empirical’ model for secondary electron production and the TRIM routines which describe ion stopping power, scattering, and transport, has been used to construct a Monte Carlo simulation (IONiSE) that can quantitatively interpret the generation of secondary electrons (SE) from materials by fast helium ions. This approach requires that the parameters of the semi-empirical model be determined by fitting to experimental yield data but has the merit that, unlike more fundamental models, it can be applied with equal ease to both pure elements and complex compounds. The application of the model to predict the topographic yield variation of helium generated SE as a function of energy and material, and to investigate the ratio between SE generated by incident and backscattered ions, is demonstrated.
Ramachandra, R., Griffin, B., & Joy, D. (2009). A model of secondary electron imaging in the helium ion scanning microscope. Ultramicroscopy, 109(6), 748-757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2009.01.013