Many biotypes of Lolium rigidum Gaud. (annual ryegrass) have developed resistance to herbicides; however, few have developed resistance to phenylurea herbicides. Two biotypes with different histories of herbicide selection pressure were six to eight times less sensitive to the phenylurea herbicide, chlorotoluron, than a susceptible biotype. Resistance was not due to differences in the herbicide target site as oxygen evolution by thylakoids isolated from resistant and susceptible biotypes was similarly inhibited by diuron and chlorotoluron. There was no difference in the uptake and distribution of chlorotoluron into resistant and susceptible plants. There was a twofold greater rate of chlorotoluron detoxification in resistant plants with N-demethylation being a major detoxification reaction. Resistant plants treated with a 3-h pulse of 120 muM chlorotoluron recovered net carbon fixation after 42 h, half the time taken by susceptible plants. The mixed-function oxidase inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (70 muM) intensified the effects of chlorotoluron in resistant plants when applied in combination with the herbicide for 7 d. 1-Aminobenzotriazole also inhibited the metabolism of chlorotoluron in both resistant and susceptible plants. The cytochrome P-450 inhibitor, piperonyl butoxide piperonyl butoxide, interacted with chlorotoluron when applied to plants growing in soil. Chlorotoluron applied with reduced plant dry weight to a greater extent than chlorotoluron alone. It appears, therefore, that enhanced detoxification is the major mechanism of resistance to chlorotoluron in the resistant biotypes studied.
|Publication status||Published - 1993|