Waterlogging stress disturbs plant metabolism through increased ion (manganese and iron) toxicity resulting from the changes in the soil redox potential under hypoxic conditions. Our previous study found a significant correlation between the tolerance to Mn2+ toxicity and waterlogging stress tolerance in barley, suggesting that waterlogging tolerance could be increased by improving the tolerance to Mn2+ toxicity. In this study, a doubled-haploid (DH) population from the cross between barley varieties Yerong and Franklin (waterlogging-tolerant and -sensitive, respectively) was used to identify QTL controlling tolerance to Mn2+ toxicity based on chlorophyll content and plant survival as selection criteria. Four significant QTL for plant survival under Mn2+ stress (QSur.yf.1H, QSur.yf.3H, QSur.yf.4H, and QSur.yf.6H) were identified in this population at the seedling stage. Two significant QTL (QLC.yf.3H and QLC.yf.6H) controlling leaf chlorosis under Mn2+ stress were identified on chromosomes 3H and 6H close to QSur.yf.3H and QSur.yf.6H. The major QTL QSur.yf.3H, located near the marker Bmag0013, explained 21% of the phenotypic variation. The major QTL for plant survival on 3H was validated in a different DH population (TX9425/Naso Nijo). This major QTL could potentially be used in breeding programmes to enhance tolerance to both manganese toxicity and waterlogging.