A ligamentous explanation for overactive bladder symptoms as defined by International Continence Society in the female

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The International Continence Society (ICS) committee has defined overactive bladder (OAB) as “a syndrome characterized by symptoms of urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia (increased night time urination). The term OAB can only be used if there is no proven infection or other obvious pathology”. Though the ICS gives no anatomical basis for OAB, it is suggested that the cause is from the detrusor itself. In this review, urodynamic evidence is presented that OAB in the female may be a prematurely activated but normal micturition reflex, as predicted by the Integral Theory. Anatomically, a trampoline analogy explains how loose ligaments prevent the vaginal stretching so important for support of the bladder base stretch receptors which control the reflex. Surgical cure of OAB by repair of loose cardinal/ uterosacral ligaments are an important proof that the origins of OAB are outside the bladder, laxity of the suspensory ligaments which in turn, inactivate the striated muscle vector forces which contract against them. This concept is not in in conflict with the definitions of the ICS. Rather it provides a causative anatomical background to the definitions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-107
Number of pages3
JournalCentral European Journal of Urology
Volume71
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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