The karyotypes of pseudoscorpions of three families, Geogarypidae, Garypinidae and Olpiidae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones), were studied for the first time. Three species of the genus Geogarypus from the family Geogarypidae and 10 species belonging to 8 genera from the family Olpiidae were studied. In the genus Geogarypus the diploid chromosome numbers of males range from 15 to 23. In the family Olpiidae the male chromosome numbers vary greatly, from 7 to 23. The male karyotype of single studied member of the family Garypinidae, Garypinus dimidiatus, is composed of 33 chromosomes. It is proposed that the karyotype evolution of the families Geogarypidae and Olpiidae was characterised by a substantial decrease of chromosome numbers. The diploid numbers of some olpiids are the lowest known 2n within pseudoscorpions and even one of the lowest within the class Arachnida. In spite of a considerable reduction of diploid numbers, all species studied possess a XO sex chromosome system that is widespread and probably ancestral in pseudoscorpions. Moreover, X chromosomes retain conservative metacentric morphology in the majority of species. During the first meiotic division of males, a high number of chiasmata were observed in some species, up to five per bivalent in Indolpium sp. The transient stage between pachytene and diplotene is typically characterised by extensive decondensation of chromatin in males of geogarypids and in Calocheiridius libanoticus, and we interpret this as a diffuse stage. This is recorded in pseudoscorpions for the first time. The relationships between some species belonging to the family Olpiidae are discussed based on the data obtained.