Objective: To histomorphometrically compare the use of collagen-stabilized anorganic bovine bone (ABBM-C) (test) to anorganic bovine bone + autogenous bone (ABBM + AB) (control) in maxillary sinus augmentation. Materials and Methods: Forty (n = 40 sinuses) patients underwent sinus augmentation and received either control (20 sinuses) or test bone graft (20 sinuses). Bone samples were harvested from the augmented sinuses 5 months postgrafting. The samples were processed for histomorphometry, which assessed within the primary region of interest (ROI-1), the area fraction of new bone (%NB), graft particle osseointegration (% OI), residual graft (%RG), and soft tissue components (% STM). The same analysis was also carried out in a second region of interest (ROI-2) located in a zone 1 mm proximal to the previous maxillary sinus floor. Results: In both ROI-1 and ROI-2, the mean % NB, %RG, and %STM in the control group were similar to mean values in the test group. The % OI was significantly greater in the control group (42.0 +/− 26.8) when compared to the test group (19.6 +/− 27.3) in ROI-2 (P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were seen when ROI-1 and ROI-2 were compared except for improved %OI in ROI-2 in the control group. The mean proportion of lamellar bone to woven bone in the control group (1.22 ± 1.48) was significantly greater than the test group (0.38 ± 0.29) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ABBM-C exhibited very similar histomorphometric parameters to the composite graft of ABBM + AB. The ABBM + AB group was more mature as indicated by the significantly greater proportion of lamellar bone when compared to the ABBM-C. Improved % OI was seen in the zone proximal to the resident bony floor in the ABBM + AB group. Based on histological assessment, ABBM-C is a suitable bone substitute for the purposes of maxillary sinus augmentation. Its clinical utility may be indicated in cases of sinus membrane perforation and insufficient autogenous bone in the local area.