A green approach of biochar-supported magnetic nanocomposites from white tea waste: Production, characterization and plausible synthesis mechanisms

Na Zhang, Febelyn Reguyal, Sai Praneeth, Ajit K. Sarmah

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Abstract

Green synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were impregnated into biochar matrix (EWTWB) to produce biochar-supported magnetic nanocomposite (GSMB). Instead of chemicals, organic matters in white tea waste extract were used as reductant, surfactant and functional capping materials. Magnetic biochar produced from traditional methods of pyrolysis (PMB) and co-precipitation (Co-PreMB) were prepared to compare their properties with GSMB. Xray Diffraction confirmed the main component of green synthesized particles is Fe3O4. When compared with PMB and Co-PreMB, the Fe3O4 produced by co-precipitation method has higher purity while the products from green synthesis method are complex and contain a small portion of other iron-containing compounds. As a consequence, Co-PreMB has higher saturation magnetisation value than GSMB, which are 31.3 and 11.5 Am2/kg, respectively. GSMB was also found to be less stable in acidic conditions (pH ≤ 4) than Co-PreMB. However, the SEM results exhibited that spherical magnetic nanoparticles (20–50 nm) were successfully formed and distributed on the surface of biochar via green synthesis method while serious aggregation occurred on the surface of Co-PreMB. According to the result of BET, the surface area of GSMB increased dramatically from 0.2 m2/g to 59.7 m2/g. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Xray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed the presence of rich oxygen-containing functional groups on the GSMB, The high surface area coupled with rich functional groups on the GSMB made the whole synthesis process an environmentally friendly and greener, to prepare magnetic biochar for application in wastewater treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number163923
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume886
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2023

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