This paper presents a method to design an output-feedback controller that simultaneously solves global asymptotic stabilization and tracking of an underactuated omni-directional intelligent navigator-a spherical underwater vehicle moving in a horizontal plane (i.e. at a constant depth). The vehicle does not have a sway actuator and has only position and orientation measurements available. The control development is based on Lyapunov's direct method, backstepping technique and use of interconnected structure of the vehicle dynamics. Numerical simulations demonstrate the results. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Do, D., Jiang, Z. P., Pan, J., & Nijmeijer, H. (2004). A global output-feedback controller for stabilization and tracking of underactuated ODIN: A spherical underwater vehicle. Automatica, 40(1), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.automatica.2003.08.004