© 2016 Cognizant, LLC. All rights reserved.Manta rays are internationally threatened species and population declines have been reported in various locations worldwide. As iconic megafauna species, they are also major drawcards for wildlife tourism industries. Economic valuation of these industries can provide an incentive for the protection of species and natural habitats through the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and the restriction of harvesting or trade. Site-specific estimates are essential, particularly in developing countries, to promote the nonconsumptive use of resources and develop appropriate management strategies. This study represents the first localized estimate of the economic benefits of manta ray tourism in Mozambique. Data from 478 tourist expenditure surveys, 15 stakeholder surveys, and yearly diver numbers provided by coastal tour operators were used to estimate the economic impact of manta ray tourism in the Inhambane Province. Manta ray-focused tours were estimated to be worth US$10.9 million per year in direct revenue to dive operators in the Inhambane Province, with an estimated direct economic impact (including associated tourism expenditures) of US$34.0 million annually. In the absence of manta ray tourism, between $16.1 million and $25.7 million would be lost to the region each year. Tourist and stakeholder survey responses emphasized the importance of manta rays to Mozambican coastal tourism. Both parties highlighted the need for increased protection of marine species and their environment and showed strong support for the implementation of MPAs along the Inhambane coast.