A Galaxy-scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

G. R. Tremblay, F. Combes, J. B.R. Oonk, H. R. Russell, M. A. McDonald, M. Gaspari, B. Husemann, P. E.J. Nulsen, B. R. McNamara, S. L. Hamer, C. P. O'Dea, S. A. Baum, T. A. Davis, M. Donahue, G. M. Voit, A. C. Edge, E. L. Blanton, M. N. Bremer, E. Bulbul, T. E. Clarke & 19 others L. P. David, L. O.V. Edwards, D. Eggerman, A. C. Fabian, W. Forman, C. Jones, N. Kerman, R. P. Kraft, Y. Li, M. Powell, S. W. Randall, P. Salomé, A. Simionescu, Y. Su, M. Sun, C. M. Urry, A. N. Vantyghem, B. J. Wilkes, J. A. Zuhone

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning "fountain," wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number13
    JournalAstrophysical Journal
    Volume865
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 20 Sep 2018

    Fingerprint

    cold gas
    molecular gases
    galaxies
    accretion
    gas
    bubble
    uplift
    cooling
    nebulae
    drain
    bubbles
    entropy
    inflow
    outflow
    plume
    kinematics
    automatic control
    rain
    cold
    fountain

    Cite this

    Tremblay, G. R., Combes, F., Oonk, J. B. R., Russell, H. R., McDonald, M. A., Gaspari, M., ... Zuhone, J. A. (2018). A Galaxy-scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. Astrophysical Journal, 865(1), [13]. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd
    Tremblay, G. R. ; Combes, F. ; Oonk, J. B.R. ; Russell, H. R. ; McDonald, M. A. ; Gaspari, M. ; Husemann, B. ; Nulsen, P. E.J. ; McNamara, B. R. ; Hamer, S. L. ; O'Dea, C. P. ; Baum, S. A. ; Davis, T. A. ; Donahue, M. ; Voit, G. M. ; Edge, A. C. ; Blanton, E. L. ; Bremer, M. N. ; Bulbul, E. ; Clarke, T. E. ; David, L. P. ; Edwards, L. O.V. ; Eggerman, D. ; Fabian, A. C. ; Forman, W. ; Jones, C. ; Kerman, N. ; Kraft, R. P. ; Li, Y. ; Powell, M. ; Randall, S. W. ; Salomé, P. ; Simionescu, A. ; Su, Y. ; Sun, M. ; Urry, C. M. ; Vantyghem, A. N. ; Wilkes, B. J. ; Zuhone, J. A. / A Galaxy-scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2018 ; Vol. 865, No. 1.
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    abstract = "We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning {"}fountain,{"} wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.",
    keywords = "galaxies: clusters: general, galaxies: clusters: individual (Abell 2597), galaxies: star formation",
    author = "Tremblay, {G. R.} and F. Combes and Oonk, {J. B.R.} and Russell, {H. R.} and McDonald, {M. A.} and M. Gaspari and B. Husemann and Nulsen, {P. E.J.} and McNamara, {B. R.} and Hamer, {S. L.} and O'Dea, {C. P.} and Baum, {S. A.} and Davis, {T. A.} and M. Donahue and Voit, {G. M.} and Edge, {A. C.} and Blanton, {E. L.} and Bremer, {M. N.} and E. Bulbul and Clarke, {T. E.} and David, {L. P.} and Edwards, {L. O.V.} and D. Eggerman and Fabian, {A. C.} and W. Forman and C. Jones and N. Kerman and Kraft, {R. P.} and Y. Li and M. Powell and Randall, {S. W.} and P. Salom{\'e} and A. Simionescu and Y. Su and M. Sun and Urry, {C. M.} and Vantyghem, {A. N.} and Wilkes, {B. J.} and Zuhone, {J. A.}",
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    Tremblay, GR, Combes, F, Oonk, JBR, Russell, HR, McDonald, MA, Gaspari, M, Husemann, B, Nulsen, PEJ, McNamara, BR, Hamer, SL, O'Dea, CP, Baum, SA, Davis, TA, Donahue, M, Voit, GM, Edge, AC, Blanton, EL, Bremer, MN, Bulbul, E, Clarke, TE, David, LP, Edwards, LOV, Eggerman, D, Fabian, AC, Forman, W, Jones, C, Kerman, N, Kraft, RP, Li, Y, Powell, M, Randall, SW, Salomé, P, Simionescu, A, Su, Y, Sun, M, Urry, CM, Vantyghem, AN, Wilkes, BJ & Zuhone, JA 2018, 'A Galaxy-scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole' Astrophysical Journal, vol. 865, no. 1, 13. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd

    A Galaxy-scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. / Tremblay, G. R.; Combes, F.; Oonk, J. B.R.; Russell, H. R.; McDonald, M. A.; Gaspari, M.; Husemann, B.; Nulsen, P. E.J.; McNamara, B. R.; Hamer, S. L.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.; Davis, T. A.; Donahue, M.; Voit, G. M.; Edge, A. C.; Blanton, E. L.; Bremer, M. N.; Bulbul, E.; Clarke, T. E.; David, L. P.; Edwards, L. O.V.; Eggerman, D.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Kerman, N.; Kraft, R. P.; Li, Y.; Powell, M.; Randall, S. W.; Salomé, P.; Simionescu, A.; Su, Y.; Sun, M.; Urry, C. M.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Wilkes, B. J.; Zuhone, J. A.

    In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, No. 1, 13, 20.09.2018.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A Galaxy-scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

    AU - Tremblay, G. R.

    AU - Combes, F.

    AU - Oonk, J. B.R.

    AU - Russell, H. R.

    AU - McDonald, M. A.

    AU - Gaspari, M.

    AU - Husemann, B.

    AU - Nulsen, P. E.J.

    AU - McNamara, B. R.

    AU - Hamer, S. L.

    AU - O'Dea, C. P.

    AU - Baum, S. A.

    AU - Davis, T. A.

    AU - Donahue, M.

    AU - Voit, G. M.

    AU - Edge, A. C.

    AU - Blanton, E. L.

    AU - Bremer, M. N.

    AU - Bulbul, E.

    AU - Clarke, T. E.

    AU - David, L. P.

    AU - Edwards, L. O.V.

    AU - Eggerman, D.

    AU - Fabian, A. C.

    AU - Forman, W.

    AU - Jones, C.

    AU - Kerman, N.

    AU - Kraft, R. P.

    AU - Li, Y.

    AU - Powell, M.

    AU - Randall, S. W.

    AU - Salomé, P.

    AU - Simionescu, A.

    AU - Su, Y.

    AU - Sun, M.

    AU - Urry, C. M.

    AU - Vantyghem, A. N.

    AU - Wilkes, B. J.

    AU - Zuhone, J. A.

    PY - 2018/9/20

    Y1 - 2018/9/20

    N2 - We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning "fountain," wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.

    AB - We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597, a nearby (z = 0.0821) cool core cluster of galaxies. The data map the kinematics of a three billion solar mass filamentary nebula that spans the innermost 30 kpc of the galaxy's core. Its warm ionized and cold molecular components are both cospatial and comoving, consistent with the hypothesis that the optical nebula traces the warm envelopes of many cold molecular clouds that drift in the velocity field of the hot X-ray atmosphere. The clouds are not in dynamical equilibrium, and instead show evidence for inflow toward the central supermassive black hole, outflow along the jets it launches, and uplift by the buoyant hot bubbles those jets inflate. The entire scenario is therefore consistent with a galaxy-spanning "fountain," wherein cold gas clouds drain into the black hole accretion reservoir, powering jets and bubbles that uplift a cooling plume of low-entropy multiphase gas, which may stimulate additional cooling and accretion as part of a self-regulating feedback loop. All velocities are below the escape speed from the galaxy, and so these clouds should rain back toward the galaxy center from which they came, keeping the fountain long lived. The data are consistent with major predictions of chaotic cold accretion, precipitation, and stimulated feedback models, and may trace processes fundamental to galaxy evolution at effectively all mass scales.

    KW - galaxies: clusters: general

    KW - galaxies: clusters: individual (Abell 2597)

    KW - galaxies: star formation

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053872166&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd

    DO - 10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd

    M3 - Article

    VL - 865

    JO - The Astrophysical Journal

    JF - The Astrophysical Journal

    SN - 0004-637X

    IS - 1

    M1 - 13

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    Tremblay GR, Combes F, Oonk JBR, Russell HR, McDonald MA, Gaspari M et al. A Galaxy-scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole. Astrophysical Journal. 2018 Sep 20;865(1). 13. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aad6dd