This literature review critically synthesizes 10 years of international teacher expectations research using a simplified “expectation effect process” model. New developments in teacher expectation research are outlined, including effects of teacher expectations on students, teachers’ development of expectations, teachers’ differential treatment of students, and students’ reactions to teacher expectations. A brief overview of pre-2008 research presents the foundations of the post-2008 research using the same “expectation effect process” model. A separate section about Australian research is also included. Results of the literature review show that while qualitative research on the topic has increased from 2008 to 2018, quantitative studies still prevail and qualitative studies on the topic—particularly those which consider students’ perspectives—are rare. Hence, this article argues that the development of a more holistic, in-depth understanding of how teacher expectations affect student outcomes is possible through contextually embedded qualitative research that includes exploration of students’ reactions to teacher expectations. In this way, further understandings about how and why expectation effects vary between students could be gained.