Purpose: Preoperative fitness training has been listed as a top ten research priority in anesthesia. We aimed to capture the current practice patterns and perspectives of anesthetists and colorectal surgeons in Australia and New Zealand regarding preoperative risk stratification and prehabilitation to provide a basis for implementation research. Methods: During 2016, we separately surveyed fellows of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) and members of the Colorectal Society of Surgeons in Australia and New Zealand (CSSANZ). Our outcome measures investigated the responders’ demographics, practice patterns, and perspectives. Practice patterns examined preoperative assessment and prehabilitation utilizing exercise, hematinic, and nutrition optimization. Results: We received 155 responses from anesthetists and 71 responses from colorectal surgeons. We found that both specialty groups recognized that functional capacity was linked to postoperative outcome; however, fewer agreed that robust evidence exists for prehabilitation. Prehabilitation in routine practice remains low, with significant potential for expansion. The majority of anesthetists do not believe their patients are adequately risk stratified before surgery, and most of their colorectal colleagues are amenable to delaying surgery for at least an additional two weeks. Two-thirds of anesthetists did not use cardiopulmonary exercise testing as they lacked access. Hematinic and nutritional assessment and optimization is less frequently performed by anesthetists compared with their colorectal colleagues. Conclusions: An unrecognized potential window for prehabilitation exists in the two to four weeks following cancer diagnosis. Early referral, larger multi-centre studies focusing on long-term outcomes, and further implementation research are required.