© 2015 Nautical Archaeology Society. In 2012, Australian cultural heritage practitioners and conservation scientists collaborated on a national underwater cultural heritage (UCH) reburial project, known as the Australian Historic Shipwreck Preservation Project (AHSPP) funded by the Australian Research Council. This resulted in the excavation, documentation and reburial of the 'at risk' shipwreck Clarence. Following the excavation, the site and associated artefacts were reburied and subsequently covered by shade cloth and finally, with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tarpaulins. After completion of the in situ reburial, a number of critical issues were put into sharp relief including: what constitutes the accurate identification of a site as being 'at risk'; and the implications of 'rapid reburial'.