The wheel was the first form of transportation developed by early people. Increasing population, longer distances, and shorter travel times need more cheap, faster modes of transportation. Environmental issues were never taken into account when choosing the most cost-effective mode of public transportation. Consequently, in the face of global pollution and warming restrictions, all stakeholders choose modes of transportation with little environmental impact. This has led to the development of sustainable transportation infrastructure, particularly in a country as rapidly developing as India. This paper examines the present situation, legislation, and grading systems for sustainable transportation in India and other developing nations. Furthermore, comparisons of India with developing nations of various continents in different aspects are also present. The difference in cost between a private car and a public vehicle indicates which form of transportation should be chosen. The challenges linked with urban and rural Indian roadways are explored, as well as their respective solutions. In order to accomplish sustainable transportation, traffic density and driver conduct are also considered. This study emphasises that sustainability is not just achieved through the use of cleaner fuel or the modification of road materials, although these are vital. Road design, regulatory changes, psychological behaviour, and transit safety are also crucial.