A comparison of obesity indices in relation to mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study

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Abstract

Aims/hypothesis: This prospective association study aimed to compare the relationship between each of four obesity indices and mortality risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The associations of BMI, waist circumference, WHR and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) with all-cause mortality were analysed in 1282 participants of the Fremantle Diabetes Study, followed for up to 20 years after baseline assessment. Models were adjusted for age and other confounders; assessments as continuous measures and by quintile were carried out for men and women separately. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to minimise reverse causality. Results: When indices were assessed as continuous variables, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for: ABSI, which was greater in both men and women who died (p < 0.001); WHR, which was greater in women only (p = 0.033); and BMI, which was lower in women only (p < 0.001). When assessed by quintile, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for ABSI in men and women (p < 0.001) and BMI in women only (p = 0.002). In Cox models of time to death, adjusted for age, diabetes duration, ethnicity and smoking, ABSI quintiles showed a linear trend for both men (p = 0.003) and women (p = 0.035). Men in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk compared with those in the first quintile (HR [95% CI]: 1.74 [1.24, 2.44]) and women in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk that approached statistical significance (1.42 [0.97, 2.08], p = 0.08). Men in the fifth WHR quintile had an increased mortality risk (1.47 [1.05, 2.06]). There was no association between mortality and BMI or waist circumference in either sex. Conclusions/interpretation: ABSI was the obesity index most strongly associated with all-cause mortality in Australians with type 2 diabetes. There was no evidence for an obesity paradox with any of the assessed indices. ABSI may be a better index of central obesity than waist circumference, BMI or WHR when assessing mortality risk in type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-536
JournalDiabetologia
Volume63
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Obesity
Mortality
Waist Circumference
Abdominal Obesity
Proportional Hazards Models
Causality
Smoking
Prospective Studies

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@article{78740e155fa4494ea4d77d425580f2b3,
title = "A comparison of obesity indices in relation to mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study",
abstract = "Aims/hypothesis: This prospective association study aimed to compare the relationship between each of four obesity indices and mortality risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The associations of BMI, waist circumference, WHR and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) with all-cause mortality were analysed in 1282 participants of the Fremantle Diabetes Study, followed for up to 20 years after baseline assessment. Models were adjusted for age and other confounders; assessments as continuous measures and by quintile were carried out for men and women separately. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to minimise reverse causality. Results: When indices were assessed as continuous variables, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for: ABSI, which was greater in both men and women who died (p < 0.001); WHR, which was greater in women only (p = 0.033); and BMI, which was lower in women only (p < 0.001). When assessed by quintile, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for ABSI in men and women (p < 0.001) and BMI in women only (p = 0.002). In Cox models of time to death, adjusted for age, diabetes duration, ethnicity and smoking, ABSI quintiles showed a linear trend for both men (p = 0.003) and women (p = 0.035). Men in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk compared with those in the first quintile (HR [95{\%} CI]: 1.74 [1.24, 2.44]) and women in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk that approached statistical significance (1.42 [0.97, 2.08], p = 0.08). Men in the fifth WHR quintile had an increased mortality risk (1.47 [1.05, 2.06]). There was no association between mortality and BMI or waist circumference in either sex. Conclusions/interpretation: ABSI was the obesity index most strongly associated with all-cause mortality in Australians with type 2 diabetes. There was no evidence for an obesity paradox with any of the assessed indices. ABSI may be a better index of central obesity than waist circumference, BMI or WHR when assessing mortality risk in type 2 diabetes.",
keywords = "A Body Shape Index, Body Mass Index, Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Mortality, Obesity paradox, Type 2 diabetes, Waist Circumference, Waist-Hip ratio",
author = "Joel Tate and Matthew Knuiman and Davis, {Wendy A.} and Davis, {Timothy M.E.} and Bruce, {David G.}",
year = "2020",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1007/s00125-019-05057-8",
language = "English",
volume = "63",
pages = "528--536",
journal = "Diabetolgia",
issn = "0012-186X",
publisher = "Springer",
number = "3",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - A comparison of obesity indices in relation to mortality in type 2 diabetes

T2 - the Fremantle Diabetes Study

AU - Tate, Joel

AU - Knuiman, Matthew

AU - Davis, Wendy A.

AU - Davis, Timothy M.E.

AU - Bruce, David G.

PY - 2020/3

Y1 - 2020/3

N2 - Aims/hypothesis: This prospective association study aimed to compare the relationship between each of four obesity indices and mortality risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The associations of BMI, waist circumference, WHR and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) with all-cause mortality were analysed in 1282 participants of the Fremantle Diabetes Study, followed for up to 20 years after baseline assessment. Models were adjusted for age and other confounders; assessments as continuous measures and by quintile were carried out for men and women separately. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to minimise reverse causality. Results: When indices were assessed as continuous variables, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for: ABSI, which was greater in both men and women who died (p < 0.001); WHR, which was greater in women only (p = 0.033); and BMI, which was lower in women only (p < 0.001). When assessed by quintile, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for ABSI in men and women (p < 0.001) and BMI in women only (p = 0.002). In Cox models of time to death, adjusted for age, diabetes duration, ethnicity and smoking, ABSI quintiles showed a linear trend for both men (p = 0.003) and women (p = 0.035). Men in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk compared with those in the first quintile (HR [95% CI]: 1.74 [1.24, 2.44]) and women in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk that approached statistical significance (1.42 [0.97, 2.08], p = 0.08). Men in the fifth WHR quintile had an increased mortality risk (1.47 [1.05, 2.06]). There was no association between mortality and BMI or waist circumference in either sex. Conclusions/interpretation: ABSI was the obesity index most strongly associated with all-cause mortality in Australians with type 2 diabetes. There was no evidence for an obesity paradox with any of the assessed indices. ABSI may be a better index of central obesity than waist circumference, BMI or WHR when assessing mortality risk in type 2 diabetes.

AB - Aims/hypothesis: This prospective association study aimed to compare the relationship between each of four obesity indices and mortality risk in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The associations of BMI, waist circumference, WHR and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) with all-cause mortality were analysed in 1282 participants of the Fremantle Diabetes Study, followed for up to 20 years after baseline assessment. Models were adjusted for age and other confounders; assessments as continuous measures and by quintile were carried out for men and women separately. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to minimise reverse causality. Results: When indices were assessed as continuous variables, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for: ABSI, which was greater in both men and women who died (p < 0.001); WHR, which was greater in women only (p = 0.033); and BMI, which was lower in women only (p < 0.001). When assessed by quintile, there were significant bivariate associations with mortality for ABSI in men and women (p < 0.001) and BMI in women only (p = 0.002). In Cox models of time to death, adjusted for age, diabetes duration, ethnicity and smoking, ABSI quintiles showed a linear trend for both men (p = 0.003) and women (p = 0.035). Men in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk compared with those in the first quintile (HR [95% CI]: 1.74 [1.24, 2.44]) and women in the fifth ABSI quintile had an increased mortality risk that approached statistical significance (1.42 [0.97, 2.08], p = 0.08). Men in the fifth WHR quintile had an increased mortality risk (1.47 [1.05, 2.06]). There was no association between mortality and BMI or waist circumference in either sex. Conclusions/interpretation: ABSI was the obesity index most strongly associated with all-cause mortality in Australians with type 2 diabetes. There was no evidence for an obesity paradox with any of the assessed indices. ABSI may be a better index of central obesity than waist circumference, BMI or WHR when assessing mortality risk in type 2 diabetes.

KW - A Body Shape Index

KW - Body Mass Index

KW - Cohort study

KW - Longitudinal study

KW - Mortality

KW - Obesity paradox

KW - Type 2 diabetes

KW - Waist Circumference

KW - Waist-Hip ratio

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U2 - 10.1007/s00125-019-05057-8

DO - 10.1007/s00125-019-05057-8

M3 - Article

VL - 63

SP - 528

EP - 536

JO - Diabetolgia

JF - Diabetolgia

SN - 0012-186X

IS - 3

ER -