A comparison of hallucinatory experiences and their appraisals in those with and without mental illness

Melissa Connell, James G. Scott, John J. McGrath, Flavie Waters, Frank Larøi, Rosa Alati, Jake Najman, Kim Betts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Few studies have compared the content and appraisal of hallucinatory experiences (HE) by people with psychosis and those without. This study compared the characteristics of HE, and their appraisals, in individuals with psychotic disorder, non-psychotic mental disorder and no disorder in the general population. Participants (n = 253) aged between 30–33 years who reported HE were recruited from a birth cohort and assessed for lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders. They were allocated to groups based on their diagnosis and their HE were rated to assess their form, content and associated appraisals. Compared to those with no mental disorder, participants with a psychotic disorder had almost twelve times the odds of appraising their HE as distressing and dangerous and nine times the odds of experiencing recurrent HE. Those with a non-psychotic disorder had more than twice the odds of recurrent HE compared to those with no disorder. Overall, HE showed more similarities than differences across the diagnostic groups. Negative appraisals of HE and their recurrence differentiated clinical from non-clinical populations. Screening for HE and assessment of their associated appraisals is essential in those seeking care for mental health difficulties. Interventions aimed at modifying maladaptive appraisals can assist in reducing hallucination related distress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-300
Number of pages7
JournalPsychiatry Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


Dive into the research topics of 'A comparison of hallucinatory experiences and their appraisals in those with and without mental illness'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this