This study evaluated GSK's combined DTPa-IPV vaccine (Infanrix (TM)-IPV) given as a fifth consecutive acellular pertussis booster dose in conjunction with the second dose of MMR vaccine (Priorix (TM)) in children aged 4-6 years. The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this vaccine regimen was compared with separate injections of DTPa and IPV when given concomitantly with MMR. A cohort of 362 children previously primed with four doses of DTPa and OPV, and a single dose of MMR were randomized to receive either DTPa-IPV+MMR (N=181) or DTPa+IPV+MMR (N=181). Antibody concentrations were measured prior to and I month after the booster dose. After immunisation all subjects from both groups had seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria, tetanus and the three poliovirus serotypes, >= 96% showed vaccine response to PT, FHA and PRN, all were seropositive to mumps and rubella, and all but one subject were seropositive to measles. Immunogenicity results for each component antigen were similar for DTPa-IPV and separately co-administered DTPa and IPV. Local reactions were common with 24.0% and 31.1% of children experiencing swelling > 50 mm at the DTPa-IPV and DTPa injection sites, respectively. The DTPa-IPV combination did not increase the incidence or intensity of adverse events compared with separately administered DTPa+IPV. The response to the concomitantly administered MMR vaccine was similar in the two groups and similar to previously reported responses for a second dose of MMR. This combined DTPa-IPV vaccine has a similar reactogenicity profile to DTPa, is immunogenic when given as a booster dose at 4-6 years of age, and has no impact on the immunogenicity of a co-administered second dose of MMR vaccine. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.