A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

S.S. Lim, T. Vos, A.D. Flaxman, G. Danaei, K. Shibuya, H. Adair-Rohani, M. Amann, H.R. Anderson, K.G. Andrews, M. Aryee, C. Atkinson, L.J. Bacchus, A.N. Bahalim, K. Balakrishnan, J. Balmes, S. Barker-Collo, A. Baxter, M.L. Bell, J.D. Blore, F. BlythC. Bonner, G. Borges, R. Bourne, M. Boussinesq, M. Brauer, P. Brooks, N.G. Bruce, B. Brunekreef, C. Bryan-Hancock, C. Bucello, R. Buchbinder, Fiona Bull, R.T. Burnett, T.E. Byers, B. Calabria, Jonathan Carapetis, E. Carnahan, Z. Chafe, F. Charlson, H. Chen, J.S. Chen, A.T.-A. Cheng, J.C. Child, A. Cohen, K.E. Colson, B.C. Cowie, S. Darby, S. Darling, A. Davis, L. Degenhardt, F. Dentener, D.C. Des Jarlais, K. Devries, M. Dherani, E.L. Ding, E.R. Dorsey, T. Driscoll, K. Edmond, S.E. Ali, R.E. Engell, P.J. Erwin, S. Fahimi, G. Falder, F. Farzadfar, A. Ferrari, M.M. Finucane, S. Flaxman, F.G.R. Fowkes, G. Freedman, M.K. Freeman, E. Gakidou, S. Ghosh, E. Giovannucci, G. Gmel, K. Graham, R. Grainger, B. Grant, D. Gunnell, H.R. Gutierrez, W. Hall, H.W. Hoek, A. Hogan, H.D. Hosgood Iii, D. Hoy, H. Hu, B.J. Hubbell, S.J. Hutchings, S.E. Ibeanusi, G.L. Jacklyn, R. Jasrasaria, J.B. Jonas, H. Kan, J.A. Kanis, N. Kassebaum, N. Kawakami, Y.-H. Khang, S. Khatibzadeh, J.-P. Khoo, C. Kok, F. Laden, R. Lalloo, Q. Lan, T. Lathlean, J.L. Leasher, J. Leigh, Y. Li, J.K. Lin, S.E. Lipshultz, S. London, R. Lozano, Y. Lu, J. Mak, R. Malekzadeh, L. Mallinger, W. Marcenes, L. March, R. Marks, R. Martin, P. Mcgale, J. Mcgrath, S. Mehta, G.A. Mensah, T.R. Merriman, R. Micha, C. Michaud, V. Mishra, K.M. Hanafiah, A.A. Mokdad, L. Morawska, D. Mozaffarian, T. Murphy, M. Naghavi, B. Neal, P.K. Nelson, J.M. Nolla, R. Norman, C. Olives, S.B. Omer, J. Orchard, R. Osborne, B. Ostro, A. Page, K.D. Pandey, C.D.H. Parry, E. Passmore, J. Patra, N. Pearce, P.M. Pelizzari, M. Petzold, M.R. Phillips, D. Pope, C.A. Pope Iii, J. Powles, M. Rao, H. Razavi, E.A. Rehfuess, J.T. Rehm, B. Ritz, F.P. Rivara, T. Roberts, C. Robinson, J.A. Rodriguez-Portales, I. Romieu, R. Room, L.C. Rosenfeld, A. Roy, L. Rushton, J.A. Salomon, U. Sampson, L. Sanchez-Riera, E. Sanman, A. Sapkota, S. Seedat, P. Shi, K. Shield, R. Shivakoti, G.M. Singh, D.A. Sleet, E. Smith, K.R. Smith, N.J.C. Stapelberg, K. Steenland, H. Stöckl, L.J. Stovner, K. Straif, L. Straney, G.D. Thurston, J.H. Tran, R. Van Dingenen, A. Van Donkelaar, J.L. Veerman, L. Vijayakumar, R. Weintraub, M.M. Weissman, R.A. White, H. Whiteford, S.T. Wiersma, J.D. Wilkinson, H.C. Williams, W. Williams, N. Wilson, A.D. Woolf, P. Yip, J.M. Zielinski, A.D. Lopez, C.J.L. Murray, M. Ezzati

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Abstract

[Truncated Abstract] Background : Quantification of the disease burden caused by different risks informs prevention by providing an account of health loss different to that provided by a disease-by-disease analysis. No complete revision of global disease burden caused by risk factors has been done since a comparative risk assessment in 2000, and no previous analysis has assessed changes in burden attributable to risk factors over time. Methods: We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010. We estimated exposure distributions for each year, region, sex, and age group, and relative risks per unit of exposure by systematically reviewing and synthesising published and unpublished data. We used these estimates, together with estimates of cause-specific deaths and DALYs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, to calculate the burden attributable to each risk factor exposure compared with the theoretical-minimum-risk exposure. We incorporated uncertainty in disease burden, relative risks, and exposures into our estimates of attributable burden…
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2224-2260
JournalLancet
Volume380
Issue number9859
Early online date14 Dec 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012

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