Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a teacher training program targeting the use of student-centered learning strategies—compared to a typical-practice, teacher-centered teaching style control—on physical education (PE) outcomes among high school students. Design: This investigation was following the CONSORT guidelines (2010) for a cluster randomized controlled trial. Method: Australian students, aged 12–16 years (N = 554, M = 14.27, SD = 0.69), reported their motivation for PE, perceptions of teacher-derived psychological need satisfaction, in-class effort, and self-efficacy at baseline and follow-up (5 weeks later). Fidelity assessments were made at the mid-point of the intervention, whereby a blinded, trained observer coded teachers’ implementation of student-centered learning strategies. Results: Teachers in the intervention arm implemented student-centered strategies to a greater extent than those in the control arm. Linear mixed models revealed that over-time, relative to those in the control arm, students in the intervention arm displayed more positive change in autonomous motivation for PE, as well as in autonomy and relatedness need satisfaction, effort, and PE learning-efficacy. Conclusions: Conceptually, these findings demonstrate that teacher training programs targeting the use of student-centered teaching strategies may be beneficial for promoting desirable motivational outcomes, and provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for these positive in-class effects (e.g., heightened need satisfaction). This study also offers important practical information for educators in terms of how to foster student-centered classroom environments.