A chemometric approach to evaluate the effects of probe-type ultrasonication on the enzyme inactivation and quality attributes of fresh amla juice

Raouf Aslam, Mohammed Shafiq Alam, Asgar Ali, Yang Tao, Sivakumar Manickam

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11 Citations (Scopus)


The enzymatic browning induced in amla juice due to the high activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) is one of the critical issues faced by the industry. The present study assessed the suitability of non-thermal, high-intensity ultrasound (US) on the inactivation of PPO and POD in fresh Indian Gooseberry juice. Ultrasonic waves, using a 6 mm titanium alloy probe were irradiated in the juice at a maximum power of 455 W and frequency of 20 kHz. The subsequent effects on biochemical attributes were studied using response surface methodology. Inactivation rates of 90.72 % and 73.18 %, respectively, for PPO and POD enzymes, were observed at the highest US intensity and exposure time. Numerical optimisation using the three-factor, three -level Box-Behnken design suggested that an optimum process at 70 % (energy density: 1610 Wcm(-2)) pulsed at 5 s on and 5 s off for 7 min 30 s resulted in PPO and POD inactivation of the order of 76.42 % and 64.57 % respectively. At these experimental conditions, the optimized levels of biochemical attributes i.e., ascorbic acid (738.50 mg/100 mL), total phenols (17.10 mg/mL), DPPH antioxidant activity (58.47 %), tannins (7.11 mu g/mL), colour change (Delta E = 9.04) and flavonoids (6.14 mg/mL) were achieved. The overall statistical models were significant for all the responses except for reducing sugars. Furthermore, the approximation equations for in-dividual responses indicated that the goodness of fit was adequate (R-2 > 0.90). The results suggested that ul-trasound is a suitable processing technique for amla juice stabilisation compared to thermal treatments that result in the loss of quality.
Original languageEnglish
Article number106268
Number of pages11
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

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