A century of exercise physiology: concepts that ignited the study of human thermoregulation. Part 1: Foundational principles and theories of regulation

Sean R. Notley, Duncan Mitchell, Nigel A.S. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This contribution is the first of a four-part, historical series encompassing foundational principles, mechanistic hypotheses and supported facts concerning human thermoregulation during athletic and occupational pursuits, as understood 100 years ago and now. Herein, the emphasis is upon the physical and physiological principles underlying thermoregulation, the goal of which is thermal homeostasis (homeothermy). As one of many homeostatic processes affected by exercise, thermoregulation shares, and competes for, physiological resources. The impact of that sharing is revealed through the physiological measurements that we take (Part 2), in the physiological responses to the thermal stresses to which we are exposed (Part 3) and in the adaptations that increase our tolerance to those stresses (Part 4). Exercising muscles impose our most-powerful heat stress, and the physiological avenues for redistributing heat, and for balancing heat exchange with the environment, must adhere to the laws of physics. The first principles of internal and external heat exchange were established before 1900, yet their full significance is not always recognised. Those physiological processes are governed by a thermoregulatory centre, which employs feedback and feedforward control, and which functions as far more than a thermostat with a set-point, as once was thought. The hypothalamus, today established firmly as the neural seat of thermoregulation, does not regulate deep-body temperature alone, but an integrated temperature to which thermoreceptors from all over the body contribute, including the skin and probably the muscles. No work factor needs to be invoked to explain how body temperature is stabilised during exercise.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2379-2459
Number of pages81
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

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