A brief history of MECP2 duplication syndrome: 20-years of clinical understanding

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MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS) is a rare, X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a duplication of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene—a gene in which loss-of-function mutations lead to Rett syndrome (RTT). MDS has an estimated live birth prevalence in males of 1/150,000. The key features of MDS include intellectual disability, developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, recurrent respiratory infections, gastrointestinal problems, behavioural features of autism and dysmorphic features—although these comorbidities are not yet understood with sufficient granularity. This review has covered the past two decades of MDS case studies and series since the discovery of the disorder in 1999. After comprehensively reviewing the reported characteristics, this review has identified areas of limited knowledge that we recommend may be addressed by better phenotyping this disorder through an international data collection. This endeavour would also serve to delineate the clinical overlap between MDS and RTT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131
JournalOrphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


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