TY - THES

T1 - A 50 K dual-mode sapphire oscillator and whispering spherical mode oscillators

AU - Anstie, James

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - [Truncated abstract] This thesis is split into two parts. In part one; A 50 K dual mode oscillator, the aim of the project was to build a 50 K precision oscillator with frequency stability on the order of 1014 from 1 to 100 seconds. A dual-mode temperature compensation technique was used that relied on a turning point in the frequency-temperature relationship of the difference frequency between two orthogonal whispering gallery modes in a single sapphire crystal. A cylindrical sapphire loaded copper cavity resonator was designed, modelled and built with a turning point in the difference frequency between an E-mode and H-mode pair at approximately 52.5 K . . . The frequencies and Q-factors of whispering spherical modes in the 3-12 GHz range in the fused silica resonator are measured at 6, 77 and 300 K and the Q-factor is used to determine the loss tangent at these temperatures. The frequency and Q-factor temperature dependence of the TM2,1,2 whispering gallery mode at 5.18 GHZ is used to characterise the loss tangent and relative permittivity of the fused silica from 4-300 K. Below 22 K the frequency-temperature dependence of the resonator was found to be consistent with the combined effects of the thermal properties of the dielectric and the influence of an unknown paramagnetic impurity, with a spin resonance frequency at about 138 ± 31 GHz. Below 8 K the loss tangent exhibited a 9th order power law temperature dependence, which may be explained by Raman scattering of Phonons from the paramagnetic impurity ions. A spherical Bragg reflector resonator made from multiple concentric dielectric layers loaded in a spherical cavity that enables confinement of field in the centre of the resonator is described. A set of simultaneous equations is derived that allow the calculation of the required dimensions and resonance frequency for such a resonator and the solution is confirmed using finite element analysis. A spherical Bragg reflector resonator is constructed using Teflon and free-space as the dielectric materials. A Q-factor of 22,000 at 13.87 GHz was measured and found to compare well with the design values.

AB - [Truncated abstract] This thesis is split into two parts. In part one; A 50 K dual mode oscillator, the aim of the project was to build a 50 K precision oscillator with frequency stability on the order of 1014 from 1 to 100 seconds. A dual-mode temperature compensation technique was used that relied on a turning point in the frequency-temperature relationship of the difference frequency between two orthogonal whispering gallery modes in a single sapphire crystal. A cylindrical sapphire loaded copper cavity resonator was designed, modelled and built with a turning point in the difference frequency between an E-mode and H-mode pair at approximately 52.5 K . . . The frequencies and Q-factors of whispering spherical modes in the 3-12 GHz range in the fused silica resonator are measured at 6, 77 and 300 K and the Q-factor is used to determine the loss tangent at these temperatures. The frequency and Q-factor temperature dependence of the TM2,1,2 whispering gallery mode at 5.18 GHZ is used to characterise the loss tangent and relative permittivity of the fused silica from 4-300 K. Below 22 K the frequency-temperature dependence of the resonator was found to be consistent with the combined effects of the thermal properties of the dielectric and the influence of an unknown paramagnetic impurity, with a spin resonance frequency at about 138 ± 31 GHz. Below 8 K the loss tangent exhibited a 9th order power law temperature dependence, which may be explained by Raman scattering of Phonons from the paramagnetic impurity ions. A spherical Bragg reflector resonator made from multiple concentric dielectric layers loaded in a spherical cavity that enables confinement of field in the centre of the resonator is described. A set of simultaneous equations is derived that allow the calculation of the required dimensions and resonance frequency for such a resonator and the solution is confirmed using finite element analysis. A spherical Bragg reflector resonator is constructed using Teflon and free-space as the dielectric materials. A Q-factor of 22,000 at 13.87 GHz was measured and found to compare well with the design values.

KW - Atomic clocks

KW - Oscillators, Electric

KW - Nonlinear oscillators

KW - Frequencies of oscillating systems

KW - Dielectric resonator oscillators

KW - Sapphire oscillators

KW - Temperature control

KW - Whispering gallery modes

M3 - Doctoral Thesis

ER -