A 3D map of the human genome at kilobase resolution reveals principles of chromatin looping

Suhas S.P. Rao, Miriam H. Huntley, Neva C. Durand, Elena K. Stamenova, Ivan D. Bochkov, James T. Robinson, Adrian L. Sanborn, Ido Machol, Arina D. Omer, Eric S. Lander, Erez Lieberman Aiden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2608 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We use in situ Hi-C to probe the 3D architecture of genomes, constructing haploid and diploid maps of nine cell types. The densest, in human lymphoblastoid cells, contains 4.9 billion contacts, achieving 1 kb resolution. We find that genomes are partitioned into contact domains (median length, 185 kb), which are associated with distinct patterns of histone marks and segregate into six subcompartments. We identify ∼10,000 loops. These loops frequently link promoters and enhancers, correlate with gene activation, and show conservation across cell types and species. Loop anchors typically occur at domain boundaries and bind CTCF. CTCF sites at loop anchors occur predominantly (>90%) in a convergent orientation, with the asymmetric motifs "facing" one another. The inactive X chromosome splits into two massive domains and contains large loops anchored at CTCF-binding repeats. PaperFlick

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1665-1680
Number of pages16
JournalCell
Volume159
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2014

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