A (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex formed by a proposed intramolecular 1,4-: Ortho-To-ortho ′ Rh metal-Atom migration and its efficacy as an initiator in the controlled stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene

Nicholas Sheng Loong Tan, Gareth L. Nealon, Jason M. Lynam, Alexandre N. Sobolev, Matthew R. Rowles, Mark I. Ogden, Massimiliano Massi, Andrew B. Lowe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The synthesis of a novel Rh(i)-Aryl complex is detailed and its ability to serve as an initiator in the stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene evaluated. Targeting the Rh(i) species, (2-phenylnaphthalen-1-yl)rhodium(i)(2,5-norbornadiene)tris(para-fluorophenylphosphine), Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-PhNapth), following recrystallization we obtained the isomeric (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex, Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh), as determined by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis, and confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The isolation of the latter species was proposed to occur from the target (2-PhNapth) derivative via an intramolecular 1,4-Rh atom migration. This supposition was supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that indicated the isolated (2-NapthPh) derivative has lower energy (-19 kJ mol-1) than the targeted complex. The structure of the isolated (2-NapthPh) species was confirmed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy including 2D 31P-103Rh{1H, 103Rh}, heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) experiments; however, NMR analysis indicated the presence of a second, minor species in solution in an approximate 1:4 ratio with the 2-NapthPh complex. The minor species was identified as a second structural isomer, the 3-phenylnaphthyl derivative, proposed to be formed under a dynamic equilibrium with the 2-NapthPh derivative via a second 1,4-Rh atom migration. DFT calculations indicate that this 1,4-migration proceeds through a low-energy pathway involved in the oxidative addition of a C-H bond to Rh followed by a reductive elimination with the distribution of the products being thermodynamically controlled. The recrystallized Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh) complex was subsequently evaluated as an initiator in the polymerisation of phenylacetylene (PA); gratifyingly, the Rh(i) species was an active initiating species with the pseudo-first-order kinetic and molecular weight evolution vs time plots both linear implying a controlled polymerisation while yielding (co)polymers with low dispersities (= Mw/Mn typically ≤1.25) and high cis-Transoidal stereoregularity (>95%). Typical initiation efficiencies, while not quantitative (as judged by size exclusion chromatography), were nonetheless high at ca. 0.8. The presence of the minor 3-phenylnaphthyl species when in solution is proposed to be the cause of the observed non-quantitative initiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16437-16447
Number of pages11
JournalDalton Transactions
Volume48
Issue number43
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Rhodium
Metals
Polymerization
Derivatives
Atoms
Density functional theory
Size exclusion chromatography
Isomers
X ray powder diffraction
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Polymers
Crystal structure
Molecular weight
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Single crystals
X rays
Kinetics
phenylacetylene
Experiments

Cite this

@article{d71def3ab580402bbee4140eefdb93fe,
title = "A (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex formed by a proposed intramolecular 1,4-: Ortho-To-ortho ′ Rh metal-Atom migration and its efficacy as an initiator in the controlled stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene",
abstract = "The synthesis of a novel Rh(i)-Aryl complex is detailed and its ability to serve as an initiator in the stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene evaluated. Targeting the Rh(i) species, (2-phenylnaphthalen-1-yl)rhodium(i)(2,5-norbornadiene)tris(para-fluorophenylphosphine), Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-PhNapth), following recrystallization we obtained the isomeric (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex, Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh), as determined by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis, and confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The isolation of the latter species was proposed to occur from the target (2-PhNapth) derivative via an intramolecular 1,4-Rh atom migration. This supposition was supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that indicated the isolated (2-NapthPh) derivative has lower energy (-19 kJ mol-1) than the targeted complex. The structure of the isolated (2-NapthPh) species was confirmed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy including 2D 31P-103Rh{1H, 103Rh}, heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) experiments; however, NMR analysis indicated the presence of a second, minor species in solution in an approximate 1:4 ratio with the 2-NapthPh complex. The minor species was identified as a second structural isomer, the 3-phenylnaphthyl derivative, proposed to be formed under a dynamic equilibrium with the 2-NapthPh derivative via a second 1,4-Rh atom migration. DFT calculations indicate that this 1,4-migration proceeds through a low-energy pathway involved in the oxidative addition of a C-H bond to Rh followed by a reductive elimination with the distribution of the products being thermodynamically controlled. The recrystallized Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh) complex was subsequently evaluated as an initiator in the polymerisation of phenylacetylene (PA); gratifyingly, the Rh(i) species was an active initiating species with the pseudo-first-order kinetic and molecular weight evolution vs time plots both linear implying a controlled polymerisation while yielding (co)polymers with low dispersities (= Mw/Mn typically ≤1.25) and high cis-Transoidal stereoregularity (>95{\%}). Typical initiation efficiencies, while not quantitative (as judged by size exclusion chromatography), were nonetheless high at ca. 0.8. The presence of the minor 3-phenylnaphthyl species when in solution is proposed to be the cause of the observed non-quantitative initiation.",
author = "Tan, {Nicholas Sheng Loong} and Nealon, {Gareth L.} and Lynam, {Jason M.} and Sobolev, {Alexandre N.} and Rowles, {Matthew R.} and Ogden, {Mark I.} and Massimiliano Massi and Lowe, {Andrew B.}",
year = "2019",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1039/c9dt02953b",
language = "English",
volume = "48",
pages = "16437--16447",
journal = "Dalton Transactions: the international journal for inorganic, organometallic and bioinorganic chemistry",
issn = "1477-9226",
publisher = "ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY",
number = "43",

}

A (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex formed by a proposed intramolecular 1,4- : Ortho-To-ortho ′ Rh metal-Atom migration and its efficacy as an initiator in the controlled stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene. / Tan, Nicholas Sheng Loong; Nealon, Gareth L.; Lynam, Jason M.; Sobolev, Alexandre N.; Rowles, Matthew R.; Ogden, Mark I.; Massi, Massimiliano; Lowe, Andrew B.

In: Dalton Transactions, Vol. 48, No. 43, 01.01.2019, p. 16437-16447.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex formed by a proposed intramolecular 1,4-

T2 - Ortho-To-ortho ′ Rh metal-Atom migration and its efficacy as an initiator in the controlled stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene

AU - Tan, Nicholas Sheng Loong

AU - Nealon, Gareth L.

AU - Lynam, Jason M.

AU - Sobolev, Alexandre N.

AU - Rowles, Matthew R.

AU - Ogden, Mark I.

AU - Massi, Massimiliano

AU - Lowe, Andrew B.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The synthesis of a novel Rh(i)-Aryl complex is detailed and its ability to serve as an initiator in the stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene evaluated. Targeting the Rh(i) species, (2-phenylnaphthalen-1-yl)rhodium(i)(2,5-norbornadiene)tris(para-fluorophenylphosphine), Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-PhNapth), following recrystallization we obtained the isomeric (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex, Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh), as determined by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis, and confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The isolation of the latter species was proposed to occur from the target (2-PhNapth) derivative via an intramolecular 1,4-Rh atom migration. This supposition was supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that indicated the isolated (2-NapthPh) derivative has lower energy (-19 kJ mol-1) than the targeted complex. The structure of the isolated (2-NapthPh) species was confirmed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy including 2D 31P-103Rh{1H, 103Rh}, heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) experiments; however, NMR analysis indicated the presence of a second, minor species in solution in an approximate 1:4 ratio with the 2-NapthPh complex. The minor species was identified as a second structural isomer, the 3-phenylnaphthyl derivative, proposed to be formed under a dynamic equilibrium with the 2-NapthPh derivative via a second 1,4-Rh atom migration. DFT calculations indicate that this 1,4-migration proceeds through a low-energy pathway involved in the oxidative addition of a C-H bond to Rh followed by a reductive elimination with the distribution of the products being thermodynamically controlled. The recrystallized Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh) complex was subsequently evaluated as an initiator in the polymerisation of phenylacetylene (PA); gratifyingly, the Rh(i) species was an active initiating species with the pseudo-first-order kinetic and molecular weight evolution vs time plots both linear implying a controlled polymerisation while yielding (co)polymers with low dispersities (= Mw/Mn typically ≤1.25) and high cis-Transoidal stereoregularity (>95%). Typical initiation efficiencies, while not quantitative (as judged by size exclusion chromatography), were nonetheless high at ca. 0.8. The presence of the minor 3-phenylnaphthyl species when in solution is proposed to be the cause of the observed non-quantitative initiation.

AB - The synthesis of a novel Rh(i)-Aryl complex is detailed and its ability to serve as an initiator in the stereospecific polymerisation of phenylacetylene evaluated. Targeting the Rh(i) species, (2-phenylnaphthalen-1-yl)rhodium(i)(2,5-norbornadiene)tris(para-fluorophenylphosphine), Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-PhNapth), following recrystallization we obtained the isomeric (2-(naphthalen-2-yl)phenyl)rhodium(i) complex, Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh), as determined by X-ray single-crystal structure analysis, and confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The isolation of the latter species was proposed to occur from the target (2-PhNapth) derivative via an intramolecular 1,4-Rh atom migration. This supposition was supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that indicated the isolated (2-NapthPh) derivative has lower energy (-19 kJ mol-1) than the targeted complex. The structure of the isolated (2-NapthPh) species was confirmed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy including 2D 31P-103Rh{1H, 103Rh}, heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) experiments; however, NMR analysis indicated the presence of a second, minor species in solution in an approximate 1:4 ratio with the 2-NapthPh complex. The minor species was identified as a second structural isomer, the 3-phenylnaphthyl derivative, proposed to be formed under a dynamic equilibrium with the 2-NapthPh derivative via a second 1,4-Rh atom migration. DFT calculations indicate that this 1,4-migration proceeds through a low-energy pathway involved in the oxidative addition of a C-H bond to Rh followed by a reductive elimination with the distribution of the products being thermodynamically controlled. The recrystallized Rh(nbd)(P(4-FC6H4)3)(2-NapthPh) complex was subsequently evaluated as an initiator in the polymerisation of phenylacetylene (PA); gratifyingly, the Rh(i) species was an active initiating species with the pseudo-first-order kinetic and molecular weight evolution vs time plots both linear implying a controlled polymerisation while yielding (co)polymers with low dispersities (= Mw/Mn typically ≤1.25) and high cis-Transoidal stereoregularity (>95%). Typical initiation efficiencies, while not quantitative (as judged by size exclusion chromatography), were nonetheless high at ca. 0.8. The presence of the minor 3-phenylnaphthyl species when in solution is proposed to be the cause of the observed non-quantitative initiation.

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DO - 10.1039/c9dt02953b

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EP - 16447

JO - Dalton Transactions: the international journal for inorganic, organometallic and bioinorganic chemistry

JF - Dalton Transactions: the international journal for inorganic, organometallic and bioinorganic chemistry

SN - 1477-9226

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