Background: The placement of an implant into a fresh extraction socket has been identified as a reliable technique, allowing a reduction in the time needed for prosthetic rehabilitation. This treatment modality is widely reported in the scientific literature; however, the long-term outcomes and the need for guided bone regeneration (GBR) are still topics of debate. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the clinical and radiologic findings from the 10-year follow-up of immediately placed implants, with and without the GBR procedure. Methods: A total of 159 implants in 91 patients are included in this study; 101 implants required a GBR procedure simultaneously with placement. All implants were used to support a single crown restoration. The clinical/radiographic measurements were repeated each year up to the 10-year follow-up. At the 10-year follow-up visit, the papilla index and the apico-coronal location of mid-buccal soft tissue positions were recorded. Results: The 10-year cumulative success rate was 91.8% (87.9% in the non-GBR group and 94.1% in the GBR group). The clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements were stable throughout the study, and 82% of the implants showed marginal bone loss (MBL) of 0.6 to 1.5mmat the 10-year visit; moreover, these two parameters did not show significant differences between the GBR and non-GBR groups. Seventy percent of the implant sites showed acceptable outcomes in terms of inter-proximal papilla. The facial gingival level was more apical in the non-GBR group than in the GBR group (P <0.05). Conclusions: The present prospective clinical study shows that implants placed in fresh extraction sockets had a high cumulative success rate, namely 91.8% after 10 years. No differences were detected in survival and success rate of implants whether GBR procedures were performed or not. The CAL, MBL, and marginal level of soft tissue measurements were stable throughout the 10-year evaluation.