3D printing technologies have the potential to revolutionize the manufacture of heart valves through the ability to create bespoke, complex constructs. In light of recent technological advances, we review the progress made towards 3D printing of heart valves, focusing on studies that have utilised these technologies beyond manufacturing patient-specific moulds. We first overview the key requirements of a heart valve to assess functionality. We then present the 3D printing technologies used to engineer heart valves. By referencing International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) Standard 5840 (Cardiovascular implants – Cardiac valve prostheses), we provide insight into the achieved functionality of these valves. Overall, 3D printing promises to have a significant positive impact on the creation of artificial heart valves and potentially unlock full complex functionality.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024


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