The Malacostraca are an ancient and morphologically diverse class of Crustacea. The phylogenetic position of one order within this class, the Euphausiacea ('krill,' subclass Eumalacostraca) was investigated using 28S rDNA sequences from representatives of several malacostracan orders. Phylogenies for these sequences were estimated by maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony analysis. The results of these analyses produced a new scheme for evolution within the Eumalacostraca. The new phylogenies suggested that Euphausiacea are most closely related to the Mysida and not the Decapoda, as is generally thought. Furthermore, the Mysida were found not to be closely related to the Lophogastrida, which are often considered their sister taxon. These hypotheses were tested against the hypotheses of monophyly for the Eucarida, Mysidacea, and Peracarida and found to be significantly better on the basis of the 28S rDNA data. (C) 2000 Academic Press.