Long-term health impacts in communities that have experienced natural disasters are often overlooked. Recovery from natural disasters is often a long, drawn-out process. Recovery plans need to address these interruptions in the return to pre-disaster functioning and make provisions for addressing ongoing health problems. The following review will examine illness patterns that may arise, directly or indirectly, in the months and years following a disaster event. The objectives of the review are: (i) to identify the burden of long-term community ill-health following natural disaster events; (ii) to evaluate current gaps in the ongoing process of health monitoring for populations affected by disaster; (iii) to review approaches that would provide ongoing surveillance of physical and psychosocial ill-health.