Photo of Alex Gardner

Alex Gardner

Professor, BA LLB ANU, LLM Br.Col.

  • The University of Western Australia (M253), 35 Stirling Highway, Room 2.08, Law Building

    6009 Perth


  • 105 Citations
  • 5 h-Index
1992 …2018
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Personal profile


Alex was born and raised on a farm in Western Australia, attending high school in Perth. After undergraduate studies at the Australian National University in Canberra (1977-1983) he worked as a solicitor in Melbourne before undertaking a Master of Laws specialising in Natural Resources and Environmental Law at the University of British Columbia(1986-87). Since 1988, Alex has been based at the University of Western Australia Faculty of Law teaching undergraduate and postgraduate students in Public Law and Natural Resources and Environmental Law. He was appointed Professor of Law in July 2015.

Roles and responsibilities

Besides his academic teaching and research interests, Alex has, since 1994, been an environmental legal consultant, especially to the Environmental Defender's Office (WA) and to Western Australian Government Agencies responsible for water resources management. He was a member of the Advisory Council to the Environmental Protection Authority of Western Australia from June 1995 to August 1999 and was a senior sessional member of the State Administrative Tribunal from 2005-2017.

From October 2006 to June 2008, Alex advised the State Department of Water on water resources law reform. In 2009-10 he assisted with advice to the Commonwealth Government on issues relating to the Murray Darling Basin. In 2013-15, he assisted the National Water Commission and the Commonwealth Department of Environment.

Alex is a contributing editor to the Environmental and Planning Law Journal and was from 2012-2017 the editor of the Australian Resources and Energy Law Journal.

Alex became the Convener of the Management Committee of the Environmental Defender's Office WA (Inc)in December 2015:

Future research

Alex also has ongoing research interests in:
* water resources law, generally;
* water resources law and adaptation to climate change;
* mining and water;
* water quality law, especially the regulation of diffuse source water pollution; and
* Ramsar wetlands.

Funding overview

* 2015-16: Office of Water, Commonwealth Department of Environment, report with colleagues on the regulation of shale gas fracking on environment and water.
* 2014-15, International Mining for Development Centre, for a project on Mining and Water Law Reform for Ghana.
* 2013-16, Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities: Project A3.2 on Better Regulatory Frameworks for Water Sensitive Cities.
* 2009-14, Australian Research Council / National Water Commission, funding through the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training.
* Cotton Research and Development Corporation: 2010-2013.
* 2010-13, Cotton Research and Development Corporation.
* 2006-08, Water Resources Law Reform, Department of Water, Western Australia, consultancy contract won by competitive tender.
* 2005-06, The Department of Premier & Cabinet, WA, for a project on environmental water allocations.
* 2003, Report on Biodiversity Conservation Law Reform in Western Australia, for Conservation Commission of Western Australia, consultancy contract won by competitive tender.

Previous positions

Senior Sessional Member of the Western Australian State Administrative Tribunal, 2005-2017.
Adjunct Professor, Australian National University College of Law, 2011-2017.

Current projects

In 2018, I have commenced a new project on conservation of Ramsar Wetlands, working with the Peel-Harvey Catchment Council and with special links to wetlands conservation in China.

In 2016-17 I also worked on the 2nd edition of Water Resources Law - see news above.

In 2016-17, I completed two papers on research undertaken with Jeanette Jensen on restoration of waterways and wetlands, with funding from the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities. See my web page on "Water Resources Reform" for news of this research and Jeanette's presentations in September 2016:

In July 2015, with Nick Duff of the Goldfields Land and Sea Council of Western Australia and two colleagues from the University of Ghana, I completed a collaborative Action Research Project titled:
"Regulating Mining Water Use and Impacts in Ghana: Comparing Ghanaian and Australian Law for Reform Ideas" -

Teaching overview

Alex currently teaches postgraduate units offered by the UWA Centre for Mining, Energy and Natural Resources Law ( in Water Resources Law and Environmental Law.
At the UWA, he also teaches JD units Environmental Law and Administrative Law. He has formerly taught courses in Comparative Law and Constitutional Law.

Alex has also taught Water Resources Law in the graduate programs at:
* the Australian Centre for Environmental Law at the Australian National University College of Law, 2001-2015; and
* the TC Beirne School of Law, The University of Queensland, 2011, 2012 & 2014.


Alex's research interests are in Natural Resources and Environmental Law, with a special interest in Water Resources Law. A principal avenue for pursuing these research interests has been through the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training:
Since 2012, he has been a key researcher in the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Project A3.2 on Better Regulatory Framework for Water Sensitive Cities: .

News of this and other Water Resources Law research can be found on the "Water Resources Reform" website:


  • Resources Law
  • Environmental Law
  • Environmental Law/ Pollution
  • Natural resources law
  • Environmental law
  • Water law

Fingerprint Fingerprint is based on mining the text of the person's scientific documents to create an index of weighted terms, which defines the key subjects of each individual researcher.

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Research Output 1992 2018

139 Downloads (Pure)

A regulatory review of shale gas and tight gas in Western Australia, South Australia and Colorado

Hart, S. L., 2018, (Unpublished)

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

426 Downloads (Pure)

Australian climate change mitigation law in the era of the Paris agreement

Bennett, M., 2018, (Unpublished)

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

climate change
global climate
global warming
climate change mitigation
61 Downloads (Pure)

Still Waters Run Deep: Pilbara iron ore State agreement rights to mine dewatering and water law reform

Brown, N., 2018, (Unpublished)

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

iron ore
mining industry

The Constitutional Framework for Water Resources Management

Carney, G., Wesson, M. & Gardner, A., 2018, Water Resources Law. Gardner, A., Bartlett, R., Gray, J. & Nelson, R. (eds.). Second ed. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths, p. 95-123 28 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference paperChapter

Water Resources Law

Gardner, A., Bartlett, R., Gray, J. & Nelson, R., 2018, 2 ed. Australia: LexisNexis Butterworths.

Research output: Book/ReportBook

Projects 1998 2017