This unit covers concepts relating to measurement and noise, enabling students to understand the issues required to achieve high-quality measurements. Students better understand issues such as accuracy, precision, repeatability, calibration, uncertainty and noise. Measurements from a range of sensors (mechanical, optical, electrical) are introduced and subsequent signal conditioning (operational amplifiers, instrumentation amplifiers) are addressed with the aim of maximising signal quality. Statistical methods are discussed to better understand noise processes and how noise can be minimised. Methods to improve signal quality (signal to noise ratio) are discussed. Measurement signal and noise are analysed in both the time and frequency domain to better understand the connection between two domains and the importance of measurement bandwidth. Sampling is reviewed to understand the impact of moving from Continuous-Time (CT) and Discrete-Time (DT), including discussion of the Nyquist rate and aliasing.